Hello, it hasn't been updated for a long time. Because I was interviewing recently. It took two weeks to prepare and took 5 offers within 3 days. Finally, I chose a unicorn offer from an Internet industry in Guangzhou. I just joined yesterday. These few days have just sorted out the interesting questions that were asked in the interview, and I also take this opportunity to share with you.
The interviewer of this company is a bit interesting. On the one hand, he is a younger brother of the same age and chatted together for two hours. The second side is an architect from Ali. He asked a scenario question:
The database has a field of string type, and the URL is stored. How to design an index?
At that time, I gave the split field: the first half of the url must have a low degree of discrimination, and the second half of it will be high; I split the high and low discrimination into two fields for storage, and build an index on the field with the high discrimination. The specific answer, and proposed ideas to improve the degree of discrimination as much as possible .
The interviewer also approved my direction, but asked me if I have any other plans. I didn't answer it at the time. After I went back, I checked the information myself, and I will share with you the specific design plan here.
International practice, first on the mind map:
02 Entire field plus index
First show the table design:
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `t`( `id` INT(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT, `url` VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY ( `id` ) )ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
In fact, this question = how to design an index for strings? , You might say that it is enough to execute the following statement directly?
alter table t add index index_url(url);
I randomly drew a picture, the structure of the MySQL index_url is like this:
Indeed, this is possible. Only one scan operation is required to execute the following query statement .
select id,url from t where url='javafish/nhjj/mybatis';
But it also has a problem with wasting storage space . This situation is only suitable for storing short data and high enough discrimination (this is necessary, otherwise we will not build indexes on fields with low discrimination) **Case. If you think about the entire field being so long, it must be a thief.
Is there a less space-consuming method? We naturally think of MySQL's prefix index .
03 prefix index
For the above table data, add a prefix index, there is no need to index the entire field, so you can build an index like this:
alter table t add index index_url(url(8));
At this time, the structure of index_url is like this:
select id,url from t where url='javafish/nhjj/mybatis';
Execute the same sql query, its process is like this:
- Index_url index tree from index values satisfying a
javafishrecord, the first one found is ID1; primary key to the primary key value is found in the line ID1, determines that the value is not url
javafish/nhjj/mybatis, which rows to discard;
- Take the next record of the location ID1 that was just found, and find that it is still
javafish, take out ID2, and then take the entire row on the ID index and judge that it is still wrong;
- Repeat the previous step until the value is not to take index_url
javafishthe loop ends. In this process, the primary key index must be retrieved 6 times, that is, 6 rows are scanned . Through this comparison, you can easily find that the use of prefix index may cause the query statement to read more data .
When we increase the length of the url prefix index to 10. You will find that executing the same query statement only needs to scan 1 row to get the target data.
3.1 Prefix length selection
Seeing this, you may have also found out. Using the prefix index and defining the length can save space without adding too much additional query cost. Its choice is particularly critical . When there is little data, we can judge the choice of prefix length with the naked eye. How should we judge the data when the amount of data is large?
At this time, my mind keeps thinking, we can think that MySQL has count distinct de-counting operation, so we can execute the following sql to see what prefix length is appropriate.
select count(distinct url) as L from t;
You can do batch operations like this:
SELECT count( DISTINCT LEFT ( url, 8 ) ) AS L8, count( DISTINCT LEFT ( url, 9 ) ) AS L9, count( DISTINCT LEFT ( url, 10 ) ) AS L10, count( DISTINCT LEFT ( url, 11 ) ) AS L11 FROM t;
The result is this:
Our principle for choosing the prefix length is: high discrimination + less space ; considering the two factors, I will choose 10 as the length of the prefix index.
3.2 Insufficiency of prefix index
Although the prefix index is good, it has some shortcomings. For example, the poor length selection we mentioned above will result in an increase in the number of scan lines .
Another point is that the prefix index is used. When you optimize sql, you cannot use the index to cover this optimization point. Friends who are not sure about index coverage suggest to read this article "MySQL Index Principles"
For example: even if you modify the definition of index_url to the prefix index of url (100), at this time, although index_url already contains all the information, InnoDB still has to go back to the id index and check again, because the system is not sure about the prefix index Whether the definition of is truncated the complete information.
This is also a consideration for whether you choose a prefix index.
04 other ways
The above URLs are relatively short, and prefix index can also be used. Suppose the URL suddenly becomes longer (don’t ask why, it can become longer and thicker), and it grows like this:
Since the distinction of prefixes is really not high, the distinction is ideal when the minimum length is> 20. The longer the index is selected, the more disk space it takes up, the fewer index values that the same data page can fit, and the lower the search efficiency.
Is there any other way to ensure the degree of distinction without taking up so much space?
Yes, such as: reverse storage and adding hash fields
4.1 Reverse order storage
Let me talk about the first one. When storing URLs, store them in reverse order. At this time, the distinction of prefixes is very high, and the prefix index is established in reverse order. When querying, you can use the reverse function to check:
select url from t where url = reverse('输入的 url 字符串');
4.2 Hash field
Add an integer field to the data table, which is used as the check code of the url, and at the same time create an index on it .
alter table t add url_crc int unsigned, add index(url_crc);
When inserting, you can do this: call MySQL's crc32 function to calculate a checksum and save it in the library.
INSERT INTO t VALUE( 00000000007, 'wwww.javafish.top/article/erwt/spring', CRC32('wwww.javafish.top/article/erwt/spring'))
Then insert such a result after execution.
But one thing to note is that every time a new record is inserted, the crc32 () function is used to get the check code to fill in this new field at the same time, and there may be conflicts.
That is to say, the results obtained by the crc32 () function of two different URLs may be the same, so the where part of the query statement needs to determine whether the value of the URL is the same:
select url from t where url_crc = crc32('输入的 url 字符串') and url = '输入的 url 字符串'
In this way, it is equivalent to reducing the index length of the URL to 4 bytes, shortening the storage space and improving query efficiency.
4.3 Comparison of the two
The same point: neither supports range query .
The index created on the field stored in reverse order is sorted in the reverse order string, there is no way to use the index to perform range query. Similarly, the hash field method can only support equivalent queries.
The difference between them is mainly reflected in the following three aspects:
From the perspective of the extra space occupied , the reverse storage method on the primary key index does not consume additional storage space, and the hash field method requires an additional field. Of course, using a 4-byte prefix length for reverse storage should not be enough. If it is longer, this consumption is almost offset by the additional hash field.
In terms of CPU consumption , the reverse function requires an additional call to the reverse function each time it is written and read, while the hash field method requires an additional call to the crc32 () function. If you only look at the computational complexity of these two functions, the additional CPU resources consumed by the reverse function will be smaller.
In terms of query efficiency , the query performance using the hash field method is relatively more stable. Because the value calculated by crc32 has a probability of conflict, but the probability is very small, it can be considered that the average number of scan rows per query is close to 1. After all, the reverse storage method still uses the prefix index method, which means that it will still increase the number of scan lines.
This article talks about four solutions, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. There is no way to judge which is the best, only the most suitable. In the development, you also need to choose according to the business, the general direction is: improve the degree of distinction & minimize the space occupied.
- Create a complete index directly, which may take up more space;
- Create a prefix index to save space, but it will increase the number of query scans, and you cannot use a covering index;
- Store in reverse order, and then create a prefix index to bypass the problem of insufficient discrimination of the prefix of the string itself;
- Create a hash field index, the query performance is stable, there is additional storage and calculation consumption, like the third method, does not support range scan.
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