Take you three minutes to understand the most mature and popular LAMP website application architecture

1. Overview of LAMP

  • The LAMP architecture is one of the current mature enterprise website application modes. It refers to a set of systems and related software that work together to provide static and dynamic Web site services and its application development environment.
  • LAMP is an acronym that specifically includesLinux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database server, PHP (or Perl, Python) web programming language.

1. The main function of each component

(Platform)Linux

  • As the basis of the LAMP architecture, it provides an operating system to support the Web site, which can provide better stability and compatibility with the other three components (AMP components also support platforms such as Windows and UNIX).

(Foreground) Apache

  • As the front end of the LAMP architecture, it is a powerful and stable web server program that directly provides users with website access, sending web pages, pictures and other file content.

(Background) MySQL

  • As the back end of the LAMP architecture, it is a popular open source relational database system. In applications such as corporate websites and business systems, various account information, product information, customer information, business data, etc. can be stored in the MySQL database, and other programs can query and change this information through SQL statements.

(Intermediate connection) PHP/Perl/Python

  • As the three programming languages ​​for developing dynamic web pages, it is responsible for interpreting dynamic webpage files, communicating with web servers and database systems to work together, and providing a development and operating environment for web applications. Among them, PHP is a widely used open source multi-purpose scripting language, which can be embedded in HTML, and is especially suitable for Web application development.

2. Installation sequence of each component

  • When building the LAMP platform, the order of installation of each component is as followsLinux, Apache, MySQL, PHP.
  • Among them, there is no strict order for the installation of Apache and MySQL. The installation of the PHP environment is generally placed at the end of the installation, responsible for communicating with the Web server and the database system to work together.

Two, compile and install Apache httpd service

Ready to work

  • Take a snapshot for recovery
  • Shut down configuration virtual machine
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1. Turn off the firewall, and upload the software packages required to install Apache to the /opt directory

systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld
setenforce 0

httpd-2.4.29.tar.gz
apr-1.6.2.tar.gz
apr-util-1.6.0.tar.gz
#apr组件包用于支持Apache上层应用跨平台,提供底层接口库,能有效的降低并发连接数、降低进程和减少访问堵塞。
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2. The installation environment depends on the package

yum -y install \
gcc \							#C语言的编译器
gcc-c++ \						#C++的编译器
make \							#源代码编译器(源代码转换成二进制文件)
pcre \							#pcre是一个Perl函数库,包括perl 兼容的正则表达式库
pcre-devel \                    #perl的接口开发包
expat-devel \                   #用于支持网站解析HTML、XML文件
perl                            #perl语言编译
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ make pcre pcre-devel expat-devel perl       

Install local source

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3. Configure the software module

cd /opt/
tar zxvf apr-1.6.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf apr-util-1.6.0.tar.gz
tar jxvf httpd-2.4.29.tar.bz2

mv apr-1.6.2 /opt/httpd-2.4.29/srclib/apr
mv apr-util-1.6.0 /opt/httpd-2.4.29/srclib/apr-util

cd /opt/httpd-2.4.29/
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/httpd \		#指定将 httpd 服务程序的安装路径
--enable-so \					#启用动态加载模块支持,使 httpd 具备进一步扩展功能的能力
--enable-rewrite \				#启用网页地址重写功能,用于网站优化、防盗链及目录迁移维护
--enable-charset-lite \			#启动字符集支持,以便支持使用各种字符集编码的页面
--enable-cgi					#启用CGI(通用网关接口)脚本程序支持,便于网站的外部扩展应用访问能力
# 对接PHP
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/httpd --enable-so --enable-rewrite --enable-charset-lite --enable-cgi
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4. Compile and install

make							#make -j 2  表示开2核同时进行编译
make install
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5. Optimize the configuration file path, and put the executable program file of the httpd service into the directory of the path environment variable for easy system identification

ln -s /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf /etc/  #创建软链接到/etc/
ln -s /usr/local/httpd/bin/* /usr/local/bin/  
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6. Add httpd system service

method one: Change the service management that comes with the software package

cp /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl /etc/init.d/httpd		#用于service服务管理
chmod +x /etc/init.d/httpd
vi /etc/init.d/httpd
#!/bin/bash												#在第一行前插入新行,添加此三行内容
# chkconfig: 35 85 21									#3和5级别自动运行  开机时第85个启动 开机时第21个关闭
# description: Apache is a World Wide Web server  #描述脚本作用

chkconfig --add httpd     		#将httpd服务加入到service管理器

systemctl start httpd.service
或
service httpd start
#两个不能混用

Method Two: Write your own service management program

vim /lib/systemd/system/httpd.service
---------------
[Unit]
Description=The Apache HTTP Server						#描述
After=network.target									#描述服务类别,上下文依赖关系,before,after
[Service]
Type=forking											#后台运行方式
PIDFile=/usr/local/httpd/logs/httpd.pid					#PID文件位置,包含进程号
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/apachectl $OPTIONS				#启动服务
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID						#根据PID重载配置
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
--------------

systemctl daemon-reload  ##重载

systemctl start httpd.service
systemctl enable httpd.service
[Unit]
Description=The Apache HTTP Server
After=network.target
[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/usr/local/httpd/logs/httpd.pid
ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/apachectl $OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
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7. Modify the httpd service configuration file

Make a backup before modifying the configuration file

cp 源文件 目标文件.bak
vim /etc/httpd.conf
--52行--修改
Listen 192.198.184.10:80
--197行--取消注释,修改
ServerName www.lic.com:80

--221行--默认首页存放路径
DocumentRoot "/usr/local/httpd/htdocs"
--255行--默认首页文件名设置
DirectoryIndex index.html

httpd -t  或 apachectl -t			#检查配置文件的配置项是否有误,只能检测语法是否有问题
cat /usr/local/httpd/htdocs/index.html
systemctl restart httpd.service   #重启服务
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8. Browser access verification

echo "192.168.184.10 www.lic.com" >> /etc/hosts  #主机地址映射

http://192.168.184.10
http://www.lic.com
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It works!

Three, compile and install MySQL service

1. Transfer the software packages required to install mysql to the /opt directory

mysql-5.7.17.tar.gz
boost_1_59_0.tar.gz		#支持c++的运行库
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2. The installation environment depends on the package

yum -y install \
gcc \
gcc-c++ \
ncurses \				#字符终端下图形互动功能的动态库
ncurses-devel \			#ncurses开发包
bison \					#语法分析器
cmake					#mysql需要用cmake编译安装
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ ncurses ncurses-devel bison cmake
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Episode

  • Cmake can't be installed, first check the mount, and find that the mount is not successful. After mounting again, the installation can be successful!
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3. Configure the software module

tar zxvf mysql-5.7.17.tar.gz
tar zxvf boost_1_59_0.tar.gz

cd /opt
mv boost_1_59_0 /usr/local/boost		#重命名

cd /opt/mysql-5.7.17/
cmake \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \          #指定mysql的安装路径
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \    #指定mysql进程监听套接字文件(数据库连接文件)的存储路径
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc \                                #指定配置文件的存储路径
-DSYSTEMD_PID_DIR=/usr/local/mysql \               #指定进程文件的存储路径
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8  \                          #指定默认使用的字符集编码,如utf8
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \              #指定默认使用的字符集校对规则
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all \                        #指定其他字符集编码
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \                 #安装INNOBASE存储引擎
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \                  #安装ARCHIVE存储引擎
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \                #安装BLACKHOLE存储引擎
-DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \               #安装PERFSCHEMA存储引擎
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data \            #指定数据库文件的存储路径
-DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost \                    #指定boost的路径,若使用mysql-boost集成包安装则-DWITH_BOOST=boost
-DWITH_SYSTEMD=1                                   #生成便于systemctl管理的文件
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Storage engine options:

  • MYISAM, MERGE, MEMORY, and CSV engines are compiled into the server by default and do not need to be explicitly installed.
  • To statically compile a storage engine to the server, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
  • Available storage engine values ​​are: ARCHIVE, BLACKHOLE, EXAMPLE, FEDERATED, INNOBASE (InnoDB), PARTITION (partitioning support), and PERFSCHEMA (Performance Schema)

note:
If there is an error in the CMAKE process, after the error is resolved, you need to delete the CMakeCache.txt file in the source directory, and then re-CMAKE, otherwise the error remains

tar zxvf mysql-5.7.17.tar.gz
tar zxvf boost_1_59_0.tar.gz

cd /opt
mv boost_1_59_0 /usr/local/boost		#重命名

cd /opt/mysql-5.7.17/
cmake \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc \
-DSYSTEMD_PID_DIR=/usr/local/mysql \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8  \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \
-DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=all \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data \
-DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/boost \
-DWITH_SYSTEMD=1
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4. Compile and install

make -j 2 && make install

需要长时间等待,-j 2 表示使用两个核进行编译
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5. Create a mysql user

useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin  mysql 
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6. Modify the mysql configuration file

vim /etc/my.cnf								#删除原配置项,再重新添加下面内容
[client]									#客户端设置
port = 3306
socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysql]                                     #服务端设置
port = 3306
socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock
auto-rehash                                 #开启自动补全功能			

[mysqld]									#服务全局设置
user = mysql       							#设置管理用户
basedir=/usr/local/mysql					#指定数据库的安装目录
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data				#指定数据库文件的存储路径
port = 3306									#指定端口
character-set-server=utf8					#设置服务器字符集编码格式为utf8
pid-file = /usr/local/mysql/mysqld.pid		#指定pid 进程文件路径
socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock			#指定数据库连接文件
bind-address = 0.0.0.0						#设置监听地址,0.0.0.0代表允许所有,如允许多个IP需空格隔开
skip-name-resolve							#禁用DNS解析
max_connections=2048						#设置mysql的最大连接数
default-storage-engine=INNODB				#指定默认存储引擎
max_allowed_packet=16M						#设置数据库接收的数据包大小的最大值
server-id = 1								#指定服务ID号

sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES
[client]
port = 3306
socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysql]
port = 3306
socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock
auto-rehash		

[mysqld]
user = mysql
basedir=/usr/local/mysql
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
port = 3306
character-set-server=utf8
pid-file = /usr/local/mysql/mysqld.pid
socket=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock
bind-address = 0.0.0.0
skip-name-resolve
max_connections=2048
default-storage-engine=INNODB
max_allowed_packet=16M
server-id = 1

sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION,STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER,NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES

Common values ​​of sql_mode are as follows:

Common values ​​of sql_modeDescription
NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTIONIf the required storage engine is disabled or not compiled, then an error is thrown. When this value is not set, replace with the default storage engine and throw an exception
STRICT_TRANS_TABLESIn this mode, if a value cannot be inserted into a transaction table, the current operation is interrupted, and there is no restriction on non-transactional tables
NO_AUTO_CREATE_USERProhibit GRANT from creating users with empty passwords
NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZEROThe self-increasing column in mysql can start from 0. By default, the self-increasing column starts from 1, if you insert data with a value of 0, an error will be reported
NO_ZERO_IN_DATEZero days and months are not allowed
NO_ZERO_DATEmysql database does not allow inserting zero dates, inserting zero dates will throw an error instead of a warning
ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERODuring INSERT or UPDATE, if the data is divided by zero, an error is generated instead of a warning. By default, MySQL returns NULL when data is divided by zero
PIPES_AS_CONCATTreat "ll" as a string concatenation operator instead of an OR operator, which is the same as the Oracle database and similar to the string concatenation function Concat
ANSI_QUOTESWhen ANSI_QUOTES is enabled, double quotes cannot be used to quote a string because it is interpreted as an identifier
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7. Change the owner group of the mysql installation directory and configuration file

chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql
chown mysql:mysql /etc/my.cnf
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8. Set the path environment variable

echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:/usr/local/mysql/lib:$PATH' >> /etc/profile	
source /etc/profile
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export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:/usr/local/mysql/lib:$PATH
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9. Initialize the database

cd /usr/local/mysql/bin/
./mysqld \
--initialize-insecure \				#生成初始化密码为空
--user=mysql \                      #指定管理用户
--basedir=/usr/local/mysql \        #指定数据库的安装目录
--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data		#指定数据库文件的存储路径
./mysqld \
--initialize-insecure \
--user=mysql \
--basedir=/usr/local/mysql \
--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data
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10. Add mysqld system service

cp /usr/local/mysql/usr/lib/systemd/system/mysqld.service /usr/lib/systemd/system/		#用于systemctl服务管理
systemctl daemon-reload         #刷新识别     
systemctl start mysqld.service  #开启服务
systemctl enable mysqld         #开机自启动
netstat -anpt | grep 3306       #查看端口
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11. Modify the login password of mysql

mysqladmin -u root -p password "abc123" 	#给root账号设置密码为abc123,提示输入的是原始密码(为空)
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12. Authorize remote login

mysql -u root -p
grant all privileges on *.* to 'root'@'%' identified by 'abc123';
#授予root用户可以在所有终端远程登录,使用的密码是abc123,并对所有数据库和所有表有操作权限

show databases;			#查看当前已有的数据库
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Four, compile and install the PHP parsing environment

1. Transfer the software packages required to install PHP to the /opt directory

php-7.1.10.tar.bz2
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yum -y install \
gd \
libjpeg libjpeg-devel \   #图片格式
libpng libpng-devel \     #图片格式
freetype freetype-devel \
libxml2 libxml2-devel \
zlib zlib-devel \
curl curl-devel \
openssl openssl-devel 
yum -y install \
gd \
libjpeg libjpeg-devel \
libpng libpng-devel \
freetype freetype-devel \
libxml2 libxml2-devel \
zlib zlib-devel \
curl curl-devel \
openssl openssl-devel 
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3. Configure the software module

cd /opt
tar jxvf php-7.1.10.tar.bz2   #解压
cd /opt/php-7.1.10/
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./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/php7 \							#指定将 PHP 程序的安装路径
--with-apxs2=/usr/local/httpd/bin/apxs \			#指定Apache httpd服务提供的apxs 模块支持程序的文件位置
--with-mysql-sock=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \		#指定mysql 数据库连接文件的存储路径
--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php7				#设置 PHP 的配置文件 php.ini 将要存放的位置
--with-mysqli \										#添加 MySQL 扩展支持 #mysqli扩展技术不仅可以调用MySQL的存储过程、处理MySQL事务,而且还可以使访问数据库工作变得更加稳定
--with-zlib \										#支持zlib功能,提供数据压缩
--with-curl \										#开启curl扩展功能,实现HTTP的Get下载和Post请求的方法
--with-gd \											#激活gd 库的支持
--with-jpeg-dir \									#激活jpeg 的支持
--with-png-dir \									#激活png 的支持
--with-freetype-dir \
--with-openssl \
--enable-mbstring \									#启用多字节字符串功能,以便支持中文等代码
--enable-xml \										#开启扩展性标记语言模块
--enable-session \									#会话
--enable-ftp \										#文本传输协议
--enable-pdo \										#函数库
--enable-tokenizer \								#令牌解释器
--enable-zip										#ZIP压缩格式
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/php7 \
--with-apxs2=/usr/local/httpd/bin/apxs \
--with-mysql-sock=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \
--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php7 \
--with-mysqli \
--with-zlib \
--with-curl \
--with-gd \
--with-jpeg-dir \
--with-png-dir \
--with-freetype-dir \
--with-openssl \
--enable-mbstring \
--enable-xml \
--enable-session \
--enable-ftp \
--enable-pdo \
--enable-tokenizer \
--enable-zip
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4. Compile and install

make && make install
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5. Copy the template file as the main configuration file of PHP and modify it

cp /opt/php-7.1.10/php.ini-development /usr/local/php7/php.ini	
#在测试环境时使用php.ini-development文件,而在生产环境时使用php.ini-production文件

vim /usr/local/php7/php.ini
--1170行--修改
mysqli.default_socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock
--939行--取消注释,修改
date.timezone = Asia/Shanghai
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6. Optimize the PHP executable program file to be placed in the directory of the path environment variable to facilitate system identification

ln -s /usr/local/php7/bin/* /usr/local/bin/
php -m 			#查看PHP 加载了哪些模块
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7. Modify the configuration file of httpd service to allow Apache to support PHP

vim /etc/httpd.conf 
--393行--插入以下内容
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php
AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
--256行--修改首页文件名设置
DirectoryIndex index.html index.php

---检查支持php7的模块是否存在------
LoadModule php7_module        modules/libphp7.so
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8. Verify the PHP test page

rm -rf /usr/local/httpd/htdocs/index.html
vim /usr/local/httpd/htdocs/index.php
<?php
phpinfo();
?>

systemctl restart httpd.service

浏览器访问
http://192.168.184.10
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That's it! LAMP is built!